Sunday, 30 December 2012

Structure and Theology of Psalms 15-24

An essay of mine of the subject of the title will be published by Biblica in 2013. Here's my conclusion:
Conclusion: Structure and Theology in Psalms 15–24
This article has sought to contribute to our understanding of the final form of Pss 15–24 by drawing our attention to significant features of its structure and thematic arrangement and by analysing these elements in terms of Brunner-Traut’s theory of ancient “aspective” perception. The initial observation that Pss 15–24 consists of a chiasm set up the framework for identifying sets of inter-psalm relationships. The theory of semantic intensification as a characteristic of Biblical parallelism helped us identity a series of consistent semantic shifts between the parallel psalms within this arrangement: In short, the content of each psalm was consistently set within a more developed theological context. Finally, Brunner-Traut’s thesis that juxtaposition functions to elucidate a single reality helped us identify the presence of a single pattern underlying the diversity and thereby unifying it, namely the eschatological narrative of God’s consummation of creation by bringing his righteous king, and with him the people of whom he is a type and for whom he is a redeemer, into the reality across the threshold of his temple.
When read on their own as self-contained units, this theological context escapes the reader’s attention. When read with an eye for unifying thematic arrangement, however, we can begin to see how the editors of this collection perceived its fragmentary elements to cohere within a greater theological reality that encompassed their own day and age, namely the divine economy. In short, the bridge between the past and present was ontological, for it was grounded in God’s unchanging ways. If my reading holds any water, then it can help us understand the ways in which Israel’s literary heritage was shaped in order to function as scripture for future generations of the faithful. In its interplay between the framing psalms of theological orientation (Pss 15; 19; 24) and those dominated by disorientation and reorientation (Pss 16–18; 20–23), future readers were provided with a means for contextualizing their own faithful struggle, regardless of their shifting historical, cultural, and institutional contexts. 

Saturday, 28 April 2012

SBL Chicago

It looks like I'll be visiting my first American SBL this year. The Institute of Biblical Research has a so-called "Friday afternoon session" designed to support budding scholars. It works differently to a typical SBL session. Instead of giving papers, the participants write an article which is then posted on the IBR website for all to read. Here are some papers from last year's session. At the meeting we each provide a summary of the content of the paper and then the rest of the time is dedicated to discussing the paper with those who have read it. My paper is on "The Coherence of Psalm 24." It would be nice to see some of you there! (Oh, and I'd appreciate any tips on cheap accommodation ... ).

Wednesday, 7 March 2012

How does Psalm 2 relate to Psalm 1?

It is now generally accepted that the opening two Psalms of the Psalter function as a "gateway" to the book as a whole. Not only do they contain the two main themes that will be unfolded in what follows (Torah, Ps 1, and kingship, Ps 2), shared vocabulary and themes indicates that they have been purposely juxtaposed with each other. The most evident example is the framing function of the felicitation "Happy is the one who ... ."

If we have a case of two "Zwillingspsalmen" (twin-psalms), how are they to be related? Matthias Millard (in Die Komposition des Psalters) argues that Ps 2 specifies the identity of the righteous one in Ps 1: The righteous one is the king. The consequence is that he evil ones of Ps 1 are the enemy kings of Ps 2.

But is this correct? I would have thought that the parallel created by the framing אשרי ("happy who") clauses means that it is the torah and the king that are being set in parallel and not a would-be righteous individual and the king. What is being juxtaposed are two means of "redemption": kingship and torah. Happy is the one who imbibes the Law and happy the one who seeks shelter in the (Messianic) King.

In other words, the function of the juxtaposition is to portray two sides of a single coin answering the question: "How can we be happy?" [*]

What do you think?

[*] This also implies that Patrick Miller's interpretation does not go far enough. He argues that Ps 1 qualifies Ps 2 Deuteronomy-like by saying that whoever the king is, he must be like the individual in Ps 1. This is no doubt true, but I don't get the impression that this is the function of the juxtaposition. The issue is how the reader may be happy, not what is the nature of true kingship.

Monday, 5 March 2012

Betet für die arabischen Christen

Der arabische Pastor einer Gemeinde, die mit meiner Gemeinde verbunden ist, hat dieses Video weitergeleitet und ich leite es auch gerne weiter.

Hier ist ein Artikel über Youcef Nadarkhani. Der Artikel informiert auch, wie man eine Petition an die deutsche Regierung schreiben kann. ICGM haben einen Appelvorschlag hier. For a detailed Wikipedia on the man, go here.

Ich habe in meinem Leben bisher fünf Iraner kennengelernt, die aus ihrer Heimat aus Glaubensgründen geflohen sind, und zwei irakische Familien, die aus den selben Gründen ihre Heimat verlassen mussten. Ich kenne auch zwei ehemalige Muslime, die in sehr westlichen Familien aufgewachsen sind. Sie haben die leichtere Variante bekommen: Ausschluss aus der Familie und offizielle Enterbung. 

I recently watched this interesting debate between Dawkins and a Muslim. Dawkins asks the cleric what the punishment for apostasy (i.e. ceasing to be a Muslim) is. It is interesting to see how both he and another interlocuter avoid the question until forced to answer it in the end. 

According to Wikipedia, this mainstream cleric's view is the majority position.

I'd be delighted is someone more informed than I could tell me if this is a misrepresentation of mainstream Sharia on this issue.

Saturday, 3 March 2012

A question concerning Yhwh and his gates (Ps 24:7-10)

I posted the following question on Jim West's Biblical Studies discussion list and it has generated an interesting conversation. The question itself, however, remains unanswered so I post it here in case anyone else can help me further:
In Ps 24:7-10, the (personified?) gates of the temple are being calledupon to open up so that the King of Glory, i.e. Yhwh, may enter into thetemple. They are called the "pithhe 'olam" (פְּתְחֵי עוֹלָם)  i.e. "eternal gates" or "gatesof eternity." 'Olam (eternity) is generally interpreted to refer to God'sdimension of reality, "heaven" in a sense. The gates are "eternal" becausethey are the gates of the temple, that place where heaven is madeimmediately present. One could also interpret the construct form as "gatesof eternity," i.e. they are the gates which open up onto God's dimension(rather like "the gate of heaven" in Gen 28:17).
My problem is that the person who is supposed to enter through these gatesinto this reality is God himself. In other words, there is a heavenlyreality behind the gates which is currently devoid of his presence and intowhich he will now enter.
Some say that God's presence in the OT is dynamic, so that there is no
contradiction to seeing him as being "in" the temple and "outside" it at thesame time. But most interpreters believe that vv. 7-10 embody some kind ofritual in which Yhwh-perhaps symbolized by a physical object such as theArk-is being transported into the temple.
My question is this: How am I to conceptualize what is going on here? Whatdoes it mean for Yhwh to enter his own reality in the way portrayed here? Ifthe temple already contains "heaven", does it make no qualitative differenceif Yhwh is behind the gates or not? And if not, why bother make him enter atall? And if there is a qualitative difference, such that Yhwh's enteringconsummates something (in Kgs for example, the temple only becomes holyafter he has entered it), why are they called 'eternal' before he isentering? Are there ancient parallels in which the temple is treated asalready being a heavenly abode before its occupant enters? Or am I justmissing something?

Tuesday, 28 February 2012

Abstracts for my ISBL Amsterdam papers

I'll be giving two papers at ISBL Amsterdam this July. Here are the abstracts:
Narrative and Ontology: The Canonical Approach of Brevard S. Childs
Brevard Childs’ “canonical approach” to Biblical interpretation, introduced programmatically in his Introduction to the Old Testament in 1979, continues to find enthusiastic supporters and vigorous detractors. Yet Childs’ response to the reception of his work was often as critical of the former group as it was of the latter. The primary issue turns on his particular understanding of the meaning of the term “canon,” which he considered a “cypher” for a constellation of literary, historical, and theological realities. This paper provides a new account of the content of that cypher and thus the logical coherence of his approach. In short, it argues that the heart of the matter for Childs is “ontology,” the question of the identity of the text’s divine source and referent. In light of this analysis, it will also be suggested that Childs’ proposal has not yet been fully exploited by scholars seeking to understand the nature of the unity of Scripture and thus the proper method for interpreting it. 
Putting David in his Place: The Logic of the Arrangement of Psalms 15–24 
In recent years there have been a number of attempts to explain the structure and meaning of Psalms 15–24 (Auffret; Hossfeld/Zenger; Miller; Brown), generally understood to be the second of four “sub-collections” constituting the first book of the Psalter. While there is a consensus that the Psalms have been chiastically arranged according to their genre, there is still disagreement concerning the logic undergirding this arrangement. How do the parts relate to each other in the final form of the text? What is the function of this particular mode of arrangement? This paper seeks to contribute to the discussion by highlighting and interpreting four elements of the composition that have not yet received their proper due: 1) The manner in which the content of each psalm is “expanded” and “brought forward” in its chiastic parallel; 2) the nature of the relation between the framing Psalms (15; 19; 24) and those that intervene; 3)the identity of David as “author” of the Psalms; and 4), the significance of Zion as the horizon for interpreting the meaning of these Psalms. In short, I argue that the editors were concerned to situate David within his true theological context.

Friday, 20 January 2012

Is there a replacement for Techonrati?

Of all the pros and cons about starting blogging again that I have been throwing back and forth in my head since passing my viva (yes, I'm pretty much a doctor now, though the certificate won't arrive till March), there is one obstacle that stands out above all, and that is the fact the invaluable service once provided by Technorati no longer seems to work, at least outside of the States (customer service doesn't respond to questions either - I can't even delete my account!). Until this is sorted, I'm not sure I can get back to blogging again, for I will have no practical way of knowing who is reponding to my posts or not. Inter-blog dialogues are one of the things that make time invested in blogging worthwhile.

So, my question to the blogosphere: Is there a replacement for Technorati? My own googling efforts have revealed nothing . Specifically, what I want is a service that tells me, in chronological order (and not in order of my most popular posts) who has linked to me so that I can respond to them.